JOURNAL OF ADVANCED APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH <p>Journal of advanced applied scientific research (JOAASR) is an entrenched podium for scientific exchange among applied scientific research. The journal aims to publish papers dealing with novel experimental and theoretical aspects of applied scientific research. The focus is on fundamental and advance papers that understanding of applied scientific research. JOAASR incorporates innovations of the novel theoretical and experimental approaches on the quantitative, qualitative and modeling of advanced scientific concepts.</p> en-US (Editorial Manager) (Software Manager ) Thu, 14 Sep 2023 03:42:31 +0000 OJS 60 Isolation And Comparison Of Collagen Yield From Skin Of Rhizoprionodon acutus, Scomberomorus guttatus and Rachycentron canadum <p>Fish waste generation is estimated to be about 4 million metric tons in India, which is mostly dumped into the environment indiscriminately. A sustainable way of managing this waste is to valorise it by generating products like enzymes, bio-polymers and bioactive peptides suitable for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. Collagen, an abundant extracellular matrix protein, is a high-value product that can be extracted from fish waste like skin. In the current study, collagen has been isolated from the skin of three different species of fish - <em>Rhizoprionodon acutus</em><strong> (</strong>Milk shark)<strong>, </strong><em>Scomberomorus guttatus</em> (Indo-pacific king mackerel) and <em>Rachycentron canadum </em>(Cobia fish). Acid and pepsin extraction methods were followed for isolation of collagen and the mean yield of collagen was calculated on a wet-weight basis. Attenuated Total Reflectance- Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (AT-FTIR) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) techniques were&nbsp;&nbsp; carried out for characterisation of extracted collagen. Results showed that collagen yield was 10.81%, 7.91 and 3.62% for <em>Rachycentron canadum</em> (Cobia fish), <em>Rhizoprionodon acutus</em> (Milk shark) and <em>Scomberomorus guttatus</em> (Indo-pacific king mackerel) respectively. Characterisation confirmed that it was type I collagen and comparable with standard mammalian type I collagen. Fish skin can thus, be an acceptable source of type I collagen which can be explored&nbsp; for diverse industrial applications.</p> Parimala Karthik, Bassil Aljallah , Dr. Bindhu O S Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Role of bio-fertilizers towards sustainable agricultural development: A review <p>As bioinoculants, numerous eco-friendly microorganisms with a wide range of products are regularly utilised to improve the soil's potential and provide the host plant with the nutrients it requires. The inorganic chemical-based fertilisers employed in the soil management practises are a serious threat to both human health and the environment. Biofertilizers are alternatives that are used in sustainable agriculture to increase soil fertility and crop productivity. The use of beneficial microorganisms as bio-fertilizers has become crucial in the agricultural sector due to its potential impact on food safety and sustainable crop production. The numerous bacteria used in bioinoculant formulations, the carrier materials used, and the applications of biofertilizers are the main subjects of this paper. In especially in appropriate farming, bio-fertilizers are essential for maintaining soil fertility over the long term and crop production sustainability.</p> Asha K, Harshitha Krishna, Khushi K Raju, Pooja Sree S, Guruprasad V Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ADVANCED APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on the Synthesis of Algal Lipids <p>In light of the increasing depletion of fossil fuel reserves throughout the world, excessive pollution from greenhouse gases, and a gradual increase in carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) content in the atmosphere as a result of many anthropogenic interventions that have significantly altered the global carbon cycle, renewable energy sources have major future potential. Due to the ability to alter their lipid processes in response to environmental changes, microalgae can be utilized as a replacement since they are versatile enough to thrive in a range of environments and serve as a source of bioenergy. It is also an appealing medium for absorbing the extra CO<sub>2</sub> existing in the atmosphere. Water samples with visible algal colonies were collected from different sources in India and isolated on BG11 medium. To boost the lipid yield of the strains, silver nanoparticles prepared from ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale</em>) extracts were added after the specific strains of microalgae had their biomass production assessed. According to morphological analyses, all the isolates were spherical, green in colour, unicellular in structure, and had a range of cell sizes. The highest lipid concentration was identified in the microalgal isolate JUMAC-7 whereas the lowest was found in JUMAC-4 according to research on how silver nanoparticles triggered lipid synthesis. Therefore, the inclusion of silver nanoparticles opens a new paradigm for efficient lipid production and consequent quality biodiesel production.</p> Alongkrita Chumpi Chetia, A Prerana Yadav, Abishek Kumar P, Chirag G Pradeep, Monica N, Nisarga K, Shubhi Agrawal , Kumudini Belur Satyan Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of soil pH on plants growth, phytochemical contents and their antioxidant activity <p>Phytochemicals or secondary metabolites are non-nutritive plants derivatives required for a variety of animal bodily functions. Plant growth and available soil nutrients decide the primary and secondary metabolites. Soil pH has a significant impact on both soil nutrient availability, plant uptake, and growth. Soil pH also decide the distribution of plant species in around the world. Still, the significance of soil pH on phytochemical concentration has not been reported. The goals of this study were to find out how soil pH affects phytochemical content and their antioxidant activity. The model's accuracy in predicting phytochemical effects in various soil pH (3.8, 4.7, 5.7, 6.5, 7.6, and 8.3) was tested in a pot experiment. The soil's pH was adjusted using Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub> and HNO<sub>3</sub> (pH 3.8-8.3) and soil nutrients were maintained by KCl (8.3), MgSO<sub>4</sub> (2.5), Ca(HPO<sub>4</sub>) (5) (mg kg<sup>-1</sup> soil. Monocot species viz <em>Oryza sativa</em>, and <em>Zea mays</em>, and dicot species viz <em>Cicer arietinum</em>, <em>Macrotyloma uniflorum</em> were selected for study. Whole plants were collected between 5<sup>th</sup> to 8<sup>th </sup>day and analysed for growth and phytochemicals like phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids. The result showed acidic soil pH (5.7) and a slightly acidic pH (6.5) is suitable for <em>O. sativa</em> and <em>Z. mays</em>, <em>C. arietinum</em> growth respectively. Whereas slightly alkaline soil pH (7.6) is best for <em>M. uniflorum</em> growth. Phytochemical scarcity in plants was observed despite the presence of all nutrients in the soil. &nbsp;The quantity and quality of phytochemicals are affected by soil pH. DPPH, ABTS, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity also directly proportional to plant growth and soil pH. This suggests that soil pH has a direct impact on nutrient uptake and phytochemical constituents of plants.</p> Prabhudev SH, Ravindra KN, Supreetha BH, Nithyanandha KR, Deepdarshan Urs, Dharmappa KK, Giresha AS Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Decolorization of textile dye direct yellow 12 using bacteria isolated from soil contaminated with textile industry effluents <p>This investigation was taken up to study the&nbsp;decolorization of the textile dye, Direct Yellow 12 by making use of free and immobilized bacterial cells isolated from soil contaminated with textile industry effluents. A total of 12 isolates capable of decolorizing Direct yellow 12 were obtained. With screening, 2 isolates namely DY9 and DY 10 were selected for further decolorization studies of the dye. Biochemical characterization of both the isolates was carried and both were tentatively identified as <em>Bacillus species</em>. Optimization of decolorization the dye with respect to various parameters was carried out with one factor at a time approach. The optimum pH for both cultures was found to be 9. A temperature of 37ºC, a Shaking speed of 150 rpm and Bushnell Haas medium supplemented with 100 mg/L Starch and a Dye concentration of 2% were optimum for both cultures. Optimum decolorization with DY9 was obtained with 100 mg/L KNO<sub>3</sub> and that with DY10 was with 100 mg/L Yeast extract. A comparative study on the decolorization of Direct Yellow 12 under unoptimized and optimized conditions using both isolates was carried out. The results showed a marked increase in decolorization with both isolates under optimized conditions. The two cultures, individually and as a consortium were immobilized in Calcium alginate. Batch decolorization of the dye using free and immobilized cultures of DY9 and DY10 was carried out. The immobilized cultures showed an increase in decolorization compared to free cells. At a lower dye concentration, the immobilized consortium showed a higher decolorization. However, with increase in concentration of the dye, individual immobilized cultures proved better for decolorization. Repeated batch decolorization was carried out to check the stability of the calcium alginate beads. The current investigation showed that free and immobilized cells of both the isolates could be used in the water and soil bioremediation.</p> Dr.Vijayalakshmi Pradeep, Varshini V Bengeri, Chandana K, Keerthana K Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Application of derivative maps to Homotopy <p>The perspective of unification of mathematical concepts of Group Actions and Homotopy have been the bottom line of our study.&nbsp; We exploit this to a higher degree by investigating the derivatives associated with these.&nbsp; Heading in this direction, this paper is about linking the derivative of Homotopy and the derivative of Group Action.&nbsp; Firstly, we verify if the derivative of a Group Action is itself a Group action and whether the derivative of a Homotopy is a Homotopy.&nbsp; For this purpose, we take only special Group Actions and Homotopies restricted to the Euclidean space.&nbsp; We then discuss when the derivative of Group Action is a Homotopy and vice-versa.&nbsp; Thus our aim here is to find if the derivative of a Homotopy can lead to the existence of a related Group Action and the relevant criteria that must be satisfied for such a relation. &nbsp;</p> <p>This paper also investigates when the derivative of Homotopy between two functions is a Homotopy in addition to being a Group Action as well.&nbsp; The derivative of Group Action and Homotopy are dealt with in an attempt to find if the derivative of Group Action is also a Homotopy.&nbsp; Since the derivative of a special action is also an action, we verify if this action is a Homotopy.&nbsp; Thus we interlink the derivative of the concepts of our study as theorems/propositions.&nbsp; In particular, we obtain conditions for the derivative of a Homotopy to be a Group Action.Summarizing, this paper is about finding the derivative of Group Action and Homotopy if the presence of one leads to the existence of the other and if so when.</p> Amthul Muqheet, Dr. B R Srinivasa, Dr. Arathi Sudarshan Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Overview of Gender differences, Genetic, Epigenetic, and Non-genetic aspects <p>Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. Around 2.8% of the adult population is affected by ADHD. There are various factors that contribute to the development of ADHD which can be differentiated based on its mode of transmission. Some factors are manifested through inheritance and some are categorized as epigenetic. However, it is quite challenging to determine a well-described cause that contributes to the development of ADHD. Furthermore, there are significant differences between affected men and women. One of the most noticeable differences being that cognitive flexibility and verbal fluency are the qualities that are more evident in male counterparts, whereas for the female counterparts, working memory and inhibition are the qualities that are prominent. This review focuses on the manifestation of ADHD as well as the epigenetic, genetic, and non-genetic factors influencing it. The review also aims to draw attention to the variations between ADHD-diagnosed men and women. The knowledge of the myriad of factors that influence ADHD could be vital in designing efficient and effective therapeutics against this condition. In addition, the differences between men and women could also be exploited to understand the development of ADHD for improved and personalized remedies.</p> Sri Pranathi Peri, Suphiya Parveen Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Bacterial 16s rRNA and antibiotic susceptibility test - A potential marker for forensic individual identification on the basis of profession <p>Microorganisms are indistinguishable parts of the environment. They are distributed almost everywhere on the earth’s environment and they form the inseparable bond with that particular environment. Similarly, they are distributed inside and outside our body and forms an inextricable conjugation and takes part in the day-to-day’s body functions. These bacteria also contribute to form a skin microflora of a person staying at the particular region and performing particular type of job. According to Locard’s exchange principle when two objects come in contact with each other the exchange of matter takes place from one object to another object of the crime scene which is used in forensic science to connect the suspects with the crime scene. In accordance to this fact the skin bacteria can be transferred from one object to another when touched on the scene of crime. Another advent that exacts sequences of DNA that encodes for 16s rRNA are not identical between organisms, but stays stable and unchanged throughout the life duration, can be used as an exploratory forensic individualization tool. Literature survey says that the ownership and locality of the person, can be identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) on the basis of communities of the skin bacteria. This research is focussed on proving the variations in 16s rRNA sequences clusters on the basis of professions, which can help in identification of the. Bacterial identification can be a useful tool in identifying suspects and workplace or the profession of the suspect/s. In this paper, the results showing clustering of 16s rRNA sequences is shown clearly on the basis of professions. These clustering results were indicative of possibility of use of sanger sequencing for individualization can be used rather than using expensive analysis like pyrosequencing and NGS with careful sample collection from the scene of crime<strong>. </strong>The same strains that were used for sanger sequence were also tested for antibiotic susceptibility test, which showed that different professions show difference in antibiotic susceptibility.</p> Ruddhida R Vidwans, Usha MS Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Dimensions Identified for Physical Ergonomic Analysis in Manufacturing Industries: A Review <p>Productivity is a crucial factor in the manufacturing sector. However, exposure to poor ergonomic conditions can have a significant negative impact on productivity. Work-related injuries are a major issue in the active population of the manufacturing industry. This study examines the various ergonomic issues that could impact labour and result in illnesses, accidents, and musculoskeletal diseases, which reduce productivity. The aim is to reduce or eliminate work-related injuries and accidents altogether to boost productivity. This review pinpoints the variables crucial for physical ergonomic analysis in the manufacturing sector, such as job activities, the workplace, machine safety, work environment, and work organization. The inference is that identifying and addressing ergonomic issues is essential for improving productivity in the manufacturing industry. The study recommends creating surveys based on these aspects for workplace analysis in manufacturing industries.</p> Shreyas M, Dr. Vinay K B Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization and biodegradation of chromium present in leather industrial effluents using indigenous microorganisms isolated from leather industrial sludge <p>Microorganisms Paracoccus pantotrophus (OP288256) and Bacillus velezensis (OP289289) are used as individual cultures and Co cultures in the biodegradation of Chromium, under different optimized conditions. Isolated microorganisms from Leather industrial sludge are used for the biodegradation of Chromium. The Amount of Chromium degradation individually by Paracoccus pantotrophus, Bacillus velezensis and Co cultures of P. pantotrophus+B.velezensis was observed at pH 7. There was a maximum degradation of chromium by P.pantotrophus, B.velezensis and P. pantotrophus+B.velezensis seen at temperature of 35°C. Chromium degradation by Paracoccus pantotrophus was higher in the media supplemented with Fructose as the carbon source, whereas Bacillus velezensis showed maximum chromium degradation in media that contained Glucose as the carbon source. Thus, Co cultures showed a significant amount of chromium degradation in media that used Glucose and Fructose as carbon source. A significant amount of chromium was degraded by P.pantotrophus in the media containing Yeast Extract as the nitrogen source, whereas degradation by Bacillus velezensis was higher in the media with Peptone and P.pantotrophus+B. velezensis showed a maximum degradation in the media with Glucose and Peptone as the Nitrogen source. More the concentration of the Inoculum added to the media, the amount of chromium degradation gradually increased by individual culture and Co cultures . Significant increase in the chromium degradation observed for the incubation from Day 7 to Day 28, by individual organism and combined cultures. Bioremediation using Co cultured bacteria is an economical and environmentally better alternative to conventional remediation methods.</p> Roselin K, Dr.J.Caroline Rose Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Structural and elastic properties of Strontium doped Phosphate bioactive glasses <p>Bioactive glasses are a class of biomaterials which have the potential of becoming suitable candidates for osteogenesis. The glasses made with phosphate as the former have exceptional properties. The functional characteristics are due to the lower values of viscosity and dispersion and higher values of refractive indices. These glasses show high transparency in the range of UV spectrum. Inclusion of oxides first group and second group elements i.e., alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides respectively into the glass network modify the properties and increase the chemical resistance of phosphate glasses. Different compositions of strontium doped phosphate glasses were prepared using melt quench technique. X – Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies were performed in order to confirm the amorphous nature . The effect of adding modifier into the glass matrix was evaluated using FTIR characterization. The elastic parameters like moduli and Poisson’s ratio were calculated using Makishima and Mackenzie model. It was validated that modifiers have a significant impact on glass structure and bioactivity. These glasses are found to be capable in reducing burden on metallic biomaterials for osteogenesis and hence contribute for sustainable environment.</p> Chethan.M, Sudhakar Reddy M, Asha Rajiv Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Systematic review on heritability of craniofacial characteristics between the generations of the family <p>Face recognition is one of the most required problems in applied Biometrics. It has been likely to improve feasible techniques for physical world applications after ages of study in this particular area. This study describing findings from various research papers of the genetic of the human face and the aim of this review were to describe the heritability of the facial dimensions and facial features between the generations of the family to better understand the genetic architecture of facial dimensions and facial features also. The study result revealed that the maximum correlation was found between father-son and mother-daughter, while the smallest relationship was observed for numerous of the factors in other-sex couples. The girl demonstrated the same heritage from both parents. Overall face size, lip prominence, and chin demonstrated the strongest heritability, but nose and lip shape indicated the least relationship. The outcome of this analysis shows that there is a relatively effective genetic control in the transfer of facial soft tissue traits. In common, consistent data illustrating soft-tissue facial summaries can be attained from pictures of subjects in correct head poses. Additionally large sample size studies should perform using the parameters from this study that showed the highest correlation.</p> Paras Sharma, Dr. Priyanka Verma Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Banana peel: precious waste & its astounding properties <p>This review paper examines the uses and properties of banana peels as a valuable resource. The first section provides an overview of banana cultivation, including state-wise production in India. The second section explores the potential uses of banana peels in various fields, including skincare, water treatment, textile dyeing, and paper-making. Banana cultivation is a significant agricultural activity in India, with various states contributing to the overall production. However, banana peels are often discarded as waste despite their incredible properties. Recent research has highlighted the potential of banana peels in various fields, including skincare, where they are rich in antioxidants and vitamins.In addition, banana peels have been used in water treatment due to their ability to absorb heavy metals and other pollutants. They can also be used as a natural dye in textiles, providing an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic dyes. In the paper-making industry, banana peels have shown promising results as a raw material due to their high cellulose content.</p> <p>Overall, this review highlights the potential of banana peels as a valuable and underutilized resource in India. By repurposing banana peels, farmers and manufacturers can reduce waste, conserve resources, and develop sustainable solutions to various societal challenges. The results of this study suggest that banana peels represent a precious waste with astounding properties, which can contribute to a more sustainable and eco-friendly future.</p> Dr. Roopashree Ra, Arpita Chakraborty, C Krishna Meera Menon, Shyamji Verma Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of xenobiotic compounds on steroidogenesis in humans <p>Gonadal steroids are crucial hormones responsible for the proper functioning and growth of the body. The sex hormones are produced in the adrenal glands and gonads by a process called steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis is an enzymatic reaction where cholesterol gets converted to active steroid hormones in the respective gonads and play a dominant role in determining the primary and secondary characteristics of organisms. Studies has revealed that highly divergent groups of xenobiotic compounds are known to obstruct with steroidogenesis and cause endocrine-disrupting effects. Environmental contaminants such as DDT and PCBs are known to affect steroidogenesis. Chemicals such as azole fungicides and antifungal drugs is known to function as powerful inhibitors of steroidogenic enzymes, resulting in endocrine disruption. With the increasing various hormonal disorders and decreased fertility rate due to stress and improper lifestyle, understanding the role and environmental impact of sex hormones on humans helps to manage and lead a healthy life. This review highlights the biosynthesis, functional mechanism of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone hormones including the effects of its varying levels and the influence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on the steroidogenesis process.</p> V. Swarupa, Preeti Karki, K.M. Abdullah, Niveditha Nittoor, Pragathi Reddy, Raksha P, Rekha Mirle Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Habit of metro surroundings and architectural shaping of natural crystals –a techno bridge between crystallography and civil constructional engineering <p>A scientific platform between crystallography and architectural engineering, recovering number of issues related to the architectural challenge and protect a building from high vibration and dust stimulated from metro- environment. Issue has been controlling through architectural shaping of natural crystal and lattice environment of the minerals. Author addresses the issues on interrelationship between geomorphologic characteristics of the Karnataka in the context of the Metro region and the crystal structure which has also been fetched out from same region. The author is also addresses the combinational analysis of the architectural and space-planning design of the region.</p> Dr.S.Thiyagaraj, Dr.Nagaiah Kambhala Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000